Creative cities : since the beginning, a multi-stakeholder perspective
Creative cities, which was proposed probably before all other concepts of the contemporary urban renewal scene, by Landry in the 80s (but a key supportive US network -Partners for livable communities- was created in 1977 already), worked hard to promote new urban qualities in cities (summed up by such concepts as « livability » and « sustainability »), in which at first, ICTs did not have such a proeminent role, at least subsidiary to individual and group creativity, experiments, etc.. i.e., all ingredients of an emerging « creative economy », whatever that may mean.
If one tie the underlying activities encompassed by such endeavors and concerns as « design », « community building », « urban resilience », « diversity », « education », « historic preservation », « intergenerational issues », « parks », « playgrounds and gardens », « public health » and « technology », one ends up with an open-ended programme to encourage at the same time the quest for concrete solutions, engagement and cooperation, and the goals and visions enabling the mobilizing of ideas, talents and creative organizations. Benchmarks and rankings, in this perspective, tend to shed light on completely different types of cities than the smart city contests (see for that : http://livable.org/livability-live/731-defining-livability and http://www.citylab.com/politics/2013/11/livability-trap/7642/).
In creative cities, options do not come from more technological offer and technology-based service efficiency, possibly empowering citizens thanks to this ICT-enabled context, but from one can do with others for improving the city, building on his/her own concern, capacities and creativity. It tend to support a view of urban challenges « from below » (or bottom-up), rather than « from above » (smart governance).